More precisely, using the formula ΔCT=Avg. CTmiR-145–Avg. CTSNORD48, the miR-145 expression of each tested sample was normalised to the SNORD48 endogenous reference control of the sample. Therefore, the potential of these circulating miRNAs as clinically useful markers for prostate cancer remains to be conclusively proven. Following the removal of the prostate gland from the PCa patients, a tissue sample of approximately 200 mg was sectioned from the peripheral zone based on the preoperative features of the biopsy and on macroscopic findings. Interestingly, the 5p and 3p forms of miR-146b have converse associations with recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (Patnaik et al, 2009, 2011), providing a precedent for distinct functions of the miR-146b pairs in cancer progression.