That was the last setup hurdle: in my module build.gradle file, under android > defaultConfig I needed to specify a testInstrumentationRunner. I updated my gradle file to read: And the final puzzle piece was in place! I ran my first ever UI test with Espresso! Adjust Inbox check frequency and Amount to synchronize as you prefer. Again, Android Studio has provided us with a demo class, but in this case (at least as of Android Studio 1.5.1), the demo class isn’t set up in accordance with the official documentation for JUnit 4 tests.